In September 2008, as Lehman Brothers struggled to survive, John Thain, CEO of Merrill Lynch, realized that his bank was also on the brink of failure. Throughout the weekend of September 13-14, 2008, Thain successfully negotiated a deal with Ken Lewis, CEO of Bank of America, for Bank of America to acquire Merrill. However, throughout the fourth quarter of 2008, Merrill's financial condition deteriorated at an alarming rate, with expected 4Q08 losses ballooning from $5.3 billion in November to over $12 billion by mid-December. Shareholders of both companies approved the deal on December 5th, 2008, but soon after, Lewis telephoned fed officials and declared he would invoke the MAC clause to exit the deal unless fed officials provided government financial assistance. Fed officials instructed Lewis to "stand down" and not to invoke the MAC clause. As he convened his Board on December 22nd, 2008, Lewis had to make a decision. Should he close the deal "for the good of the country?" Or should he declare a MAC and exit the deal, potentially invoking the wrath of the U.S. government? Was there another way?
The case encourages participants to explore the complexities of deal-making and government intervention in the context of the 2008 financial crisis.
Financial Crisis, Financial Services, Government intervention
Geographic: United States
Jurisdiction: New York
Event Year Begin: 2008
To obtain accessible versions of our products for use by those with disabilities, please contact the HLS Case Studies Program at email@example.com or +1-617-496-1316.
Note: It can take up to three business days after you create an account to verify educator access. Verification will be confirmed via email.
Please note that each purchase of this product entitles the purchaser to one download and use. If you need multiple copies, please purchase the number of copies you need. For more information, see Copying Your Case Study.